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###### 日期：2021-03-31 11:39

Project for TELE9753

This is an individual project. The weight of the assessment is 20% of the final mark.

Each student should finish the project independently.

Each student should hand in one report with program code attached at the end.

At the beginning of each program, a brief description of the program must be accompanied.

It is reminded that any form of plagiarism is a breach of University policy and could cause

serious consequences. A cover page must be prepared clearly stating the contribution of

each group member. A paragraph “By signing herein, I certify that I finished the project

independently and no plagiarism has been committed. ” should also be included in the

cover page followed by the signature of the student.

The deadline of handing in the report is 5pm, April 30 2021. The report must be submitted

in Moodle.

Project Details

In this project, you are asked to evaluate the error performance of space-time block code

(Alamouti scheme) with two transmit antennas and a receiver antenna, and compare them

Part 1. Simulate a wireless communication system over a flat Rayleigh fading channel with a

single transmit antenna and a single receiver antenna. Assume BPSK signals (+1 or -1) are

transmitted. The bit error rate (BER) of the system needs to be obtained through

simulation. Then the BER curve of the systems should be plotted against the SNR. Then

compare your simulation results to the theoretical results of the system. Comment and

justify your simulation results. Verify the diversity order of the (1 Tx, 1 Rx) system. (10

Marks)

Hints for simulation

(1) All variables are generally complex (containing real and imaginary parts).

(2) BPSK signal is used in all simulations, i.e., the original signal set is{?1,+1} .

(3) All channels are Rayleigh fading and independent of each other.

(4) The receiver has ideal knowledge of the channel coefficients.

(5) All simulations are based on one sample per symbol.

(6) All receivers are subject to AWGN, i.e. zero-mean Complex Normal Distribution CN

(0,N0). The noise variance for the real part is equal to that of the imaginary part, i.e.,

N0 /2.

(7) Show the simulation results as the dependence of bit error rate (BER) on signal to

noise ratio (SNR). Present your simulation results graphically (e.g., BER vs SNR

curves).

Part 2. Space-time block code (STBC) is an extension of block codes to the scenario with two

or more transmit antennas. The simplest form of STBCs with two transmit antennas (also

referred to as the Alamouti scheme) was proposed with error performance investigated by

simulation. You are asked to evaluate the error performance of the scheme through

computer simulation. You do need to obtain the error performance for one receive antenna

for the Alamouti scheme (2 Tx, 1 Rx). The fading type used in the simulation should be flat

Rayleigh fading channels. In the simulation, you can use BPSK modulation. Rayleigh fading is

assumed between the transmit and receive antenna. (10 Marks)

Part 3. MRC is a receive diversity scheme. You are also asked to simulate a system with a

single transmit and two receive antennas. Assume that MRC is employed at the receiver.

Please compare the transmit diversity scheme (STBC) with receiver diversity of MRC. (10

Marks)

Part 4. Compare the results in Parts 1, 2, and 3, and give your quantitative and qualitative

evaluation (comparison) of the performance of the Alamouti scheme, and TAS. You are also

encouraged to comment on the advantages and disadvantages of these schemes. (10

Marks)

Part 5. In Lecture 9, we discussed multiuser capacity region with single transmit and receive

antenna. If the base station has two receive antennas, and two users each has a single

transmit antenna, discuss and plot the two user uplink capacity region. (10 Marks)

There is no fixed format for your report. As a minimum, you should include the necessary

background, system model, description of each scheme, simulation environment, simulation

results, discussion and comparison. Again, how you organize the report, and the title of each

section of the report, is a matter of your choice. Just bear in mind that the report should

contain enough information for a person with fundamental knowledge in digital

communications to easily follow and understand. Avoid copying a large part of the content

from the papers.

Whenever possible, try to rephrase them.

We will provide further Hints for the project in our consultation in order for the students to

start the basic program simulations.