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###### 日期：2020-11-04 11:21

Assignment #3

Project

MECS 4510

Evolutionary Computation

Lipson & Pollack, Nature 406, 2000

Assignment 3

? 3a Develop a 3D physics simulator

? Demonstrate a bouncing cube and a ?breathing? cube

? 3b Evolve a fixed-shape robot

? Manually design a robot, evolve a controller to make it move

? 3c Evolve both the shape and behavior of a robot

? Demonstrate a moving robot of various shapes and behavoors

? Final Presentation

Mock exam

Review

Project final presentations

How to build a 3D simulator

Basic steps

Existing Physics Simulators

Why build your own physics simulator?

? Simpler than learning to use other simulator

? Simpler to integrate with your EA

? Robust (wont crash) with garbage generated by an EA

? More versatile physics

? An extra line on your resume

Basic primitives

? Masses

? Point masses (no volume)

? Have position, velocity and acceleration

? Springs

? Massless

? Connect two masses

? Have a rest length and stiffness

? Apply restoring forces on the masses

Basic simulator

? Choose a discrete time step dt

? Not larger than a millisecond (dt=0.001).

? Set global time variable T = 0

? At each time step:

? T = T + dt

? Interaction step:

? Compute and tally all the forces acting on each mass from springs connected it

? Integration step:

? Update position and velocit? of each atom using Newton?s laws of motion Fсma?

Stick to consistent unit system, e.g. MKS

Relaxation Simulation

First: Data structures

? Mass

? Mass m (scalar)

? Position p (3D Vector)

? Velocity v (3D Vector)

? Acceleration a (3D Vector)

? External forces F (3D Vector)

? Spring

? Rest length L0 (Scalar)

? Spring constant k (scalar) (=EA/L for bars)

? Indices of two masses m1, m2

Dynamic Simulation

? Time increment

? T = T +dt

? Interaction step

? For all springs:

? Calculate compression/extension using F=k(L-L0)

? For all masses:

? Tally forces on each mass

? Add gravity, collision, external forces (if any)

? Integration Step

? Calculate a = F/m (from F=ma)

? Update v = v + dt*a;

? Update p = p + v*dt

? Repeat forever or until reaches equilibrium

dt = simulation timestep (0.001)

Dynamic = real time; geometry, mass, forces, velocities, accelerations

Dynamic Simulation

? Time increment

? T = T +dt

? Interaction step

? For all springs:

? Calculate compression/extension using F=k(L-L0)

? For all masses:

? Tally forces on each mass

? Add gravity, collision, external forces (if any)

? Integration Step

? Calculate a = F/m (from F=ma)

? Update v = v + dt*a;

? If mass is fixed, set v=0

? If dampening, reduce speed v=v*0.999

? If colliding with ground, apply restoring force

? Update p = p + v*dt

? Repeat forever or until reaches equilibrium

dt = simulation timestep (0.001)

Dynamic = real time; geometry, mass, forces, velocities, accelerations

How to handle collisions with the ground?

? Apply a ground reaction force FG once a node goes

below ground (z<0)

? FG= (0,0,-z*KG)

? KG is the spring coefficient of the ground, e.g. 100,000

const double GRAVITY = 9.81;

const double damping = 0.9999;

const double DT = 0.0008; // simulation timestep

const double friction_mu_s = 1; // friction coefficient rubber-concrete

const double friction_mu_k = 0.8;// friction coefficient rubber-concrete

const double k_vertices_soft = 2000; // spring constant of the edges

const double k_ground = 200000;// constant of the ground reaction force

double omega = 10;// this is arbitrary, you can use any that you see fit

Create more complex structures

? Share vertices and share springs

? Try making structures out of tetrahedra or other primitives

GPU- Accelerated Physis Simulations with CUDA

? GPU (CUDA) accelerated physics simulation sandbox capable of running complex spring/mass simulations in a fraction of the time of traditional CPU- based software while the CPU continues to perform optimizations.

? Capable of simulating 100,000 springs at about 4000 frames per second, or about 400,000,000 spring updates per second

int main() {

Mass * m1 = sim.createMass(Vec(1, 0, 0)); // create two masses at positions (1, 0, 0), (-1, 0, 0)

Mass * m2 = sim.createMass(Vec(-1, 0, 0));

Spring * s1 = sim.createSpring(m1, m2); // connect them with springs

Cube * c1 = sim.createCube(Vec(0, 0, 3), 1); // create fully-connected cube with side length 1 and center (0, 0, 3)

Plane * p = sim.createPlane(Vec(0, 0, 1), 0); // constraint plane z = 0 (constrains object above xy plane)

sim.setTimeStep(0.0001) // increment simulation in 0.0001 second intervals

sim.setBreakpoint(5.0); // ends simulation at 5 seconds

sim.run( ); // run simulation

// perform other optimizations on the CPU while the simulation continues to run, like topology optimization, robotics, etc.

return 0;

}

Interested in CUDA library? Contact jacob.austin@columbia.edu and Rafael Corrales Fatou rc2997@columbia.edu

Titan

Create animated structures

? Dynamically change L0 of various springs

? For example, change

? L0=a+b*sin(ZT+c)

? The coefficient Z is a global constant that determines the frequency

of oscillations.

? Setting Z =1 will result in a period of 2S sec

? Chose a,b,c randomly within a reasonable range, for each spring.

? Keep some springs at a constant rest length by choosing b=0

Simulation efficiency

? Measured in spring evaluations per second

? Per real second, not per simulated second

? Typical values

? Python: 10,000 springs/sec

? C++: 1.5 Million springs/sec per CPU core

? CUDA/GPU: 600 Million springs/sec (TitanX 2500 cores)

? If efficiency is low, keep structures simple

Elements per second

# Elements

Change material property

? Set spring constant to represent hard and soft materials

? k = 10000 Hard material

? k = 1000 soft material

? Change k as a function of spring length (nonlinear material)

? Change k with time?

? Note: Higher k needs smaller simulation dt

3D Graphics

? Visualization is important

? 3D graphics available for python, MATLAB, C++

? Draw all springs and masses

? Draw ground plane clearly (e.g. grid in different colors)

? Draw external forces

? Use color for visualization, e.g.

? Change spring color with stress (e.g. red in tension, blue in compression)

? Change spring color depending on material type, k, etc.

? You don?t need to draw the springs and masses ever? time step?

? For example, you can have a time-step of dt=0.0001 sec but draw the cube

only every 100 time-steps

Boxi Xia -

Solid appearance

? You scan make the robot look solid by shading (filling in) all the

exterior triangles of the robot.

General tips

? Choosing k and dt is trick?? If the structure is too ?wobbl??? k is too

small? If the structure ?vibrates?? k is too high. If the structure

?explodes?? ?our timestep dt or k is too large? Generall?? set dt to a

small step (e.g. 1E-5) and set k to a low stiffness (e.g. 10,000), and

increase them from there*.

? Once you get it to work, you can easily parallelize the loop in 4a and

4b to use all your CPU cores. For example, in C++ use OMP. If you are

really ambitious, you can even use GPU/CUDA.

? Be sure to use double precision numbers for all your calculations.

*Some students reported good results with k=100,000 and dt = 0.0008

Validation

? If there is no damping or friction,

energy should remain constant

? Plot the total energy of the cube as

function of time (kinetic energy, potential

energy due to gravity, potential energy in

the springs, as well as the energy related

to the ground reaction force). The sum

should be nearly constant. If it is not

constant, you have some bug

? When a mass is at or below the ground, you can

simulate friction and sliding. Assume μs is a

coefficient of friction and μk is the kinetic coefficient

? Calculate the horizontal force FH=sqrt(Fx

2+Fy

2) and the

normal force Fn

? If Fn<0 (i.e. force pointing downward) then:

? If FH< -Fn*μs then zero the horizontal forces of the mass

? If FHt -Fn*μs then reduce the horizontal force of the mass

by μk

*Fn

? Update the mass velocity based on the total forces,

including both friction and ground reaction forces

? Velocity dampening

? Multiply the velocity V by 0.999 (or similar) each time step

? Helps reduce vibration, wobbling, and snapping

? Velocity dampening

? Multiply the velocity V by 0.999 (or similar) each time step

? Helps reduce vibration and wobbling

? Apply drag force FD=cv2 in the opposite direction of v (c is drag coef).

Anchors

? Anchor points by setting v=0

? Constrain points to a curve or surface, e.g. set vx=0

? Replace F=k(L-L0) with some nonlinear behavior

? Cable

? F=k(L-L0) if L>L0

? F=0 if L<= 0

Final submission for 3a: Breathing cube

? For each spring set k and L0 = a+b*sin(Zt+c)

? Z is global frequency. a,b,c,k are spring parameters (k is spring coef)

? Cycle period is 2S/Z

Assignment 3b

? Parametrically evolve spring rest lengths coefficients to make a

manually designed robot move

Assignment 3b

Evolving Motion

? For each spring set k and L0 = a+b*sin(Zt+c)

? Z is global frequency. a,b,c,k are spring parameters (k is spring coef)

? Cycle period is 2S/Z

? Evolve locomotion

? Fitness: net distance travelled by center of mass

? Representation

? Direct encoding: Chromosome with a,b,c,k for each spring

? Indirect encoding: Chromosome specifies how a,b,c,k are determined

Direct encoding

a1,b1,c1,k1

a2,b2,c2,k2

?

an,bn,cn,kn

Fitness? Mutation? Crossover?

n = number of springs

Incorporating Sensors

? You can change the length L0 of springs also as function of sensors

? Sensor types:

? External, e.g.

? light level

? Distance to goal

? Internal (proprioceptive)

? Actual length of spring

? Ground force (Whether mass is on or below ground)

? Speed

More complex functions

? L0 = a+b*sin(Zt+c)

? L0 = a+b*sin(Zt+c)+d*sin(2Zt+e)

? L0 = a+b*sin(Zt+c)+d*sin(2Zt+e)+f*sin(3Zt+g)

? ?

? L0 = f(sin(Zt)) ? Evolve f directly

Assignment 3c

? Evolve morphology

Direct morphological operators

? Control changes

? Change actuation parameters a,b,c,k

? Morphological changes

? Add/remove spring between two exiting masses

? Change mass distribution (but keep total mass constant)

? Change rest length of existing spring

? Some operators require ?cleanup? and bookkeeping

? For example, after removing a mass you may need to remove dangling springs

and update indices of other masses

Developmental encodings

Base Tetrahedron

Growing Designs

Nervus Systems Inc.

Generative Blueprints

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