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日期:2020-10-07 09:22

ENGO 531 Lab 1 Fall 2020 Page 1 of 3

ENGO 531

Advanced Photogrammetric and Ranging Techniques

Laboratory Assignment 1

Bundle Adjustment Software Construction

Date given: 16 September 2020

Date due: 6 October 2020 at 23.59.59

   Late submissions lose 20% per business day

Marks:   This assignment constitutes 15% of your final grade.

Objective

The objective of this lab is to build and test your own photogrammetric bundle adjustment program for

frame camera imagery. You will add to and use this program for all subsequent laboratory assignments in

this course.

Thisis an individual assignment. Collaboration between studentsis anticipated and encouraged. However,

each student is to submit their own, original work. We will check for plagiarism.

Programming language

The focus of this laboratory assignment to understand bundle adjustment program organization and

methodology. The programming language you choose for the implementation is not important. Thus, the

use of interpreted languages such as MATLAB scripts and Python is permitted and encouraged.

Basic program functionality

Your program should be able to read the following inputs from text files:

? Interior orientation parameters (IOPs). Only the basic set of IOPs (principal point and principal

distance) are required. For now, these will be treated as constants, but they will be estimated in

a future lab assignment.

? Exterior orientation parameters (EOPs). For now, these will be treated approximate values rather

than observed values, but this will change in another future lab assignment.

? Ground control points (GCPs). For now, these will be treated as constants, but they will be

considered as observations in a future lab assignment.

? Tie points. These are approximate values.

? Check points. These are treated as constants but NOT used directly in the bundle adjustment.

They will be used for post‐adjustment accuracy assessment.

? Image point coordinates. These are observed values.

ENGO 531 Lab 1 Fall 2020 Page 2 of 3

? Other important adjustment data:

o The standard deviations for observation groups: there is only one group now, the image

point coordinates, but this will change in a later lab assignment

o Convergence tolerances. For now, only tolerancesfor object point coordinates and angles

are required but, again, this will change later.

o Operation mode options of the program. For now, these comprise the following, but at

least one more will be required for a later lab assignment:

1. Observed or unknown EOPs

2. Observed or unknown GCPs

Your program must correlate all the input data. That is, it must identify all the required point matches

(e.g. homologies) as described in the lecture notes. Moreover, your program must not only perform the

bundle adjustment computations (specified below), but also provide formatted, text‐file output to

facilitate the analyses of results. Some examples of this have been provided in the lecture notes, but the

exact formatting is left to your own creativity—you certainly don’t need to follow the example in the

output file. The main principle you might consider is that the data should be easy to plot from the output

file(s).

Numerical program functionality

Your program must perform the least‐squares bundle adjustment solution once all the input data have

been read. This entails the following general steps:

? Determination of the dimensions of the relevant matrices n, u, r. Note that these, like any other

adjustment quantities, should be derived from the input data and not hard coded.

? Computation of the partial derivatives and misclosures

? Formation of the normal equations by the optimized summation of normal method—this is

mandatory

? Iterative solution of the normal equations

? Computation of all parameters, residuals, covariance matrices and other relevant quantities.

Test dataset description

A small aerial dataset is provided for testing your program. The test dataset was derived from imagery of

the University of Calgary campus. The imagery was captured with a Leica RC 30 metric camera (6? focal

length and 9? ? 9? image format) at a nominal scale of 1:5000 and scanned with a resolution of 12 ?m. All

image point coordinates were measured manually in the Irfanview software. Control points and tie points

were post‐identified features. The standard deviation of the image point observations was 5 ?m.

All input data are provided in ASCII text files having the same prefix (engo531_lab1). The format and suffix

of each file is given below:

Suffix Description Format Units

PHO Image (photo) point observations point_id  image_id  x  y mm

INT Interior orientation parameters camera_id  xp  yp  c   mm

EXT Exterior orientation parameters image_id  camera_id  Xc

ENGO 531 Lab 1 Fall 2020 Page 3 of 3

A file of “configuration” data (convergence tolerances, observation group standard deviations,

adjustment modes, etc.—the “other important adjustment data” mentioned above) is NOT provided. The

format of this file is left to your creativity.

Adjustment results are also provided in a text file (OUT suffix). These were generated with fixed control

points and unknown (i.e., not observed) EOPs.

Submissions

Your bundle adjustment program will be validated and verified. Validation is performed to confirm that

the program meets the user needs. That is, does it generate the required outputs? In this regard, both the

completeness of the output file and the formatting will be assessed. Verification is performed to confirm

that you have built the program correctly. You must make statements, justified with numerical results,

that your program has correctly computed the bundle adjustment quantities. The choice of which

quantities to analyze and the quality of the presentation are your responsibility. Note that detailed

analyses of the results in terms of network quality are NOT required. Your code will be assessed in terms

its modularity, documentation and overall design. Modularity is particularly important since you will add

functionality to your program for future lab assignments.

In summary, you are required to submit

? Formatted bundle adjustment output file

? Adjustment configuration input file

? Source code

? Verification report

Submissions are to be uploaded as a single PDF file to the D2L Dropbox by the specified date and time.  

As a final note, writing a bundle adjustment program is a big job, but it can be done in the three weeks

allocated to this assignment. The following benchmarks are suggested as a guide to help you monitor

progress:

? End of week 1: demonstration of basic program functionality—read all input data and correlate

all data.

? End of week 2: demonstration of program functionality—least‐squares computations

implemented

? End of week 3: lab completed.

END OF LAB 1


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